By Martin Haspelmath
The sequence builds an in depth selection of top of the range descriptions of languages worldwide. every one quantity deals a finished grammatical description of a unmarried language including totally analyzed pattern texts and, if acceptable, a thesaurus and different proper info that is to be had at the language in query. There are not any regulations as to language family members or region, and even though designated realization is paid to hitherto undescribed languages, new and precious remedies of higher recognized languages also are integrated. No theoretical version is imposed at the authors; the single criterion is a excessive usual of clinical caliber.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Lezgian
1. ) (as well as the corresponding Continuative suffixes -zama/ -zma, -nama/-nma). The Imperfective and the Perfect go back to periphrastic constructions with the auxiliary verb awa (locative copula, cf. ), which are still described as periphrastic constructions in Uslar (1896). The Imperfective con verb plus awa yielded the Imperfective, and the Aorist converb plus awa yielded the Perfect (the Continuative tenses are due to combination with ama 'is still'): (38) Imperfective raxa-z awa έέόί-iz awa raxd-na awa 3έ£-ηα awa Perfect > > > > raxd-zwa έέΖ-zawa 'is speaking' 'is crying' raxd-nwa $ä£-nawa 'has spoken' 'has cried' In these cases, the conditions for syncope are clear: /a/ drops in a medial posttonic syllable if preceded by no more than one consonant (raxdzwa), otherwise it is preserveed (Säxnawa).
194 Download Date | 9/17/13 4:46 PM 14 1. Introduction (iii) When a category is expressed by zero, its category label is put in parentheses. kilig! 2. Zero. g. 3. Oblique stem suffix. A period in nouns separates the stem from the (semantically empty) oblique stem suffix. i-kaj dide-di-z mother-OBL-DAT instead of: tree-PL-SBEL tar-ar-i-kaj tree-PL-OBL-SBEL The Ergative case is marked by zero (like the Absolutive), but since the Ergative case is formed from the oblique stem, it is always clearly distinct from the Absolutive.
As in many languages of traditionally Muslim populations, Arabic loanwords play an eminent role in the Lezgian vocabulary. g. allaah < duTaa? g. ) is also ultimately from Arabic. Since the other main Oriental contact language, Turkic, is also full of Arabic loans, it is often difficult or impossible to establish whether a loanword of ultimate Arabic origin was borrowed directly from Arabic by the few Lezgians who knew Arabic or via Turkic. Since the knowledge of Turkic has always been significantly more widespread among the Lezgians than the knowledge of Arabic, and Arabic was only used as a written and ceremonial language, everyday words such as those in (18) are more likely to have been borrowed via Turkic.
A Grammar of Lezgian by Martin Haspelmath